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Double Jeopardy? Female African and Caribbean Immigrants in the United States

Black Caribbean Literature (BCL)
Corra,Mamadi K. (Author), Kimuna,Sitawa R. (Author)
Journal Article
Publication Date:
2009 July
Abingdon, UK: Routledge/Taylor & Francis
African American Research Center, Library, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
Subject Term:
Blacks, African Americans, Women, Emigrants and immigration, Caribbean Americans, Higher education, Socioeconomic status, Income level
Uses United States census data from the 1990 and 2000 to examine the earnings attainment for Black immigrant women (Africans and English-, French- and Spanish-speaking Caribbeans) and native-born Black women (African Americans). Data for both samples reveal sizeable earnings differences between the five groups. African, English and French Caribbean immigrant women exhibit noticeably higher average earnings than African Americans. However, with controls for earnings-related measures, the African immigrant advantage is eliminated in the 1990 sample, but not the English and French Caribbean immigrant advantage, nor the Spanish Caribbean immigrant disadvantage. No significant earnings difference was found between African Americans, English and Spanish Caribbean immigrants in the 2000 sample. Conversely, African and French Caribbean immigrants' earnings were significantly lower than those for African Americans.